Religione, rivelazione e atteggiamento epistemologico. Guardini e Ratzinger a confronto


Summary: This study begins by applying Guardini’s polar opposition between religious experience and cultural élan to his fundamental forms of religion as developed in the second chapter of Part One of his course on “Religion and Revelation” (1958). It will be suggested that distinct configurations of man’s cultural-religious development involve different forms of “rationality” or epistemological attitude. Next, according to Part Two of Guardini’s course, the relationship between religiosity and Judeo-Christian Revelation, will be investigated, the latter corresponding – as we will propose – to a unique epistemological attitude: faith. Finally, the relationships between religiosity, Revelation and epistemological attitude are considered once again in Ratzinger’s Truth and Tolerance, seeing first how he sees the progression of the fundamental historical forms of religion, and then how he opposes Revelation to the mystical form of religion. In doing so we will see how Ratzinger’s position complements and enriches Guardini’s view.

Key words: Guardini, Ratzinger, religion, Revelation, culture-ness, religious experience, faith, mysticism, typology, rationality, epistemological attitude, Gegensatz, existence.

Parole chiave: Guardini, Ratzinger, religione, Rivelazione, culturalità, esperienza religiosa, fede, mistica, tipologia, razionalità, atteggiamento epistemologico, Gegensatz, esistenza.