Summary: Our contemporary age is witness to an unprecedented presence of a new form of atheism, vigorously promoted within intellectual circles, especially by the self-declared “New Atheists” whose sworn objective is to criticise and contradict religion and religious belief wherever their influence still holds sway. However, within intellectual circles still, a contrary current called “Philosophical theism” has arisen, championed by some theistic scholars, indefatigably committed to the rational defence of the claims of theism. Through a critical juxtaposition of the foremost representatives of both currents, Richard Dawkins and Richard Swinburne respectively, this essay questions the rationality of atheism. Beginning with an elaboration of Dawkins’ arguments in favour of the higher improbability of God’s existence, it examines Swinburne’s arguments in favour of the higher probability of God’s existence. Then through a critical confrontation of the two positions, conclusions are drawn, not however without raising fresh perplexities.
Key words: Atheism, Dawkins, Rationality, Religion, Probability, Swinburne, Theism.
Parole chiave: Ateismo, Dawkins, Razionalità, Religione, Probabilità, Swinburne, Teismo.